This manifested as incorrect Red List assessments of "Least Concern" as recently as 2000. [47] Previous molecular analyses using karyotypes,[48] restriction enzymes,[49] and DNA sequences[50] were focused on understanding the relationships between a few species, not the phylogeny of the entire genus. Likewise, gestation lasts 185 to 197 days, and the young weigh between 30 and 60 grams (1.1 and 2.1 oz) at birth. kayan). The Bengal slow loris is also the largest of the slow loris species, weighing between 1 and 2 kg and with a body length (head to tail) of 26 to 38 cm. In Lao PDR, the population seems to be fairly undisturbed and occurs in large forest tracts (R. Timmins pers. [58] Like other lorisids, their snout does not taper towards the front of the face as it does in lemurs, making the face appear less long and pointed. The face is creamy white with triangular patches of dark fur around the eyes, which are occasionally connected via a fork to the dark stripe on the head. [124] Loris wine is a traditional Cambodian medicine supposed to alleviate the pain of childbirth, made from a mixture of loris bodies and rice wine. [60] The skull has prominent crests (ridges of bone). [110] However, one 2002 analysis of pygmy slow loris feces indicated that it contained 98% insect remains and just 2% plant remains. [44] In 2008, Groves and Ibnu Maryanto confirmed the promotion of the fifth species, the Javan slow loris, to species status, a move that had been suggested in previous studies from 2000. All four are expected to be listed at least simultaneously, if not high-risk, conservation status. Facts Summary: The Bengal Slow Loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "mammals" and found in the following area(s): Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam. Our websites use cookies (session, persistent, third party, advertising and performance) so they function correctly, to help us improve them and for targeted advertising. [63] Like other strepsirrhine primates, the nose and lip are covered by a moist skin called the rhinarium ("wet nose"), which is a sense organ. This species is mainly frugivorous (fruit eating) but also feeds on insects, gum, and small reptiles. As we continue to navigate life through the outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19), we wish to keep Sanctuary's supporters and readers connected to recent news and articles. [106] Infants are either parked on branches while their parents find food or else are carried by one of the parents. [124] In the province of North Sumatra, the slow loris is thought to bring good luck if it is buried under a house or a road. In the wild, envenomation occurs from intraspecific competition; whereby two slow lorises fight for mates, food or territory. However, the fathers become hostile towards their male offspring after 12 to 14 months and will chase them away. The preferred habitats of the Bengal slow loris range across tropical and subtropical regions, and include evergreen and semi-evergreen rainforests with forest edges and continuous, dense canopies. [22][68] As in all other crown strepsirrhines, their lower incisors and canine are procumbent (lie down and face outwards), forming a toothcomb, which is used for personal and social grooming and feeding. [8] Their intermembral index (ratio of arm to leg length) averages 89, indicating that their forelimbs are slightly shorter than their hind limbs. Their collective range stretches from Northeast India through Indochina, east to the Sulu Archipelago (the small, southern islands of the Philippines), and south to the island of Java (including Borneo, Sumatra, and many small nearby islands). They are heavier than all other loris species with a mass between one and two kg and a length of 26 to 38 cm, being more than three times the weight of the smallest loris… Creature Profile. These lorises can be divided into two genera. [141] Furthermore, few know about their strong odor[142] or their painful bite, which may lead to anaphylaxis in some cases. [127] Slow lorises have lost a significant amount of habitat,[128] with habitat fragmentation isolating small populations and obstructing biological dispersal. [113] The pygmy slow loris often returns to the same gum feeding sites and leaves conspicuous gouges on tree trunks when inducing the flow of exudates. The last captive birth for these species in North America was in 2001 in San Diego. [121] Slow lorises (of the genus Nycticebus) are accepted as the only known venomous primate. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Last edited on 21 December 2020, at 16:31, International Union for Conservation of Nature, "Table 2 b: taxonomic names and synonyms used by several authors: genus, species, subspecies, populations", "Experts gather to tackle slow loris trade", "Primate species: new slow loris found in Borneo", "The eyes may be cute but the elbows are lethal", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39760A10263652.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39759A10263403.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T14941A4481461.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39758A10263081.en, "Mad, bad and dangerous to know: the biochemistry, ecology and evolution of slow loris venom", "Three new species of venomous primate identified by MU researcher", "Love potions threaten survival of lorises", "YouTube sensation fuelling trade in an endangered species", "Enclosure design for captive slow and pygmy lorises", "Suite au Tableau des Quadrummanes. In Vietnam, the species can be found in secondary forest, at the edge of primary forest, and on agricultural land and bamboo forest. The first mandibular premolar is elongated, and the last molar has three cusps on the crown, the shortest of which is near the back. [22], Slow lorises range in weight from the Bornean slow loris at 265 grams (9.3 oz) to as much as 2,100 grams (74 oz) for the Bengal slow loris. It is a seed disperser and pollinator, as well as a prey item for carnivores. This genus is further divided … Its geographic range is larger than that of any other slow loris species. It prefers rainforests with dense canopies, and its presence in its native habitat indicates a healthy ecosystem. [85] The Sunda slow loris (N. coucang) occurs on Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, including Singapore and southern Thailand (the Isthmus of Kra). All of the slow loris are under threat of wildlife business and habitat loss. Their only documented predators—apart from humans—include snakes, changeable hawk-eagles and orangutans, although cats, viverrids and sun bears are suspected. [13] The Thai record is based on a single tooth that most closely resembles living slow lorises and that is tentatively classified as a species of Nycticebus. =======================================, Why international students choose Oxford Brookes, Research integrity and responsible metrics, Research ethics (staff and students only), Policies and codes of practice (staff and students only), Knowledge exchange (staff and students only), Research impact (staff and students only), Help us protect the only poisonous primate, Modern slavery statement, Student Protection Plan, Lorises are small to medium-sized primates which range in weight from 103 g to 2100 g, They have a range of habitats over a vast area of southern and south-eastern Asia, There are nine species of slow lorises currently recognised - the Bengal, Bornean, greater, Hiller's, Javan, Kayan, Philippine, pygmy and Sody's, The slow loris is a nocturnal primate that has forward-facing eyes and human-like hands with an opposable thumb, The name 'loris' is Dutch and means 'clown', which probably comes from the facial features that help to define the species, The slow loris are among the rarest primates on earth; they diverged from their closest cousins the African bushbabies around 40 million years ago, Although slow lorises are seen as slow movers, they frequently ’race walk’ and can move up to 8 km-per night. Scientific Name: Loris tardigradus Commonly found in the tropical scrub and deciduous forests as well as the dense hedgerow plantations bordering farmlands of Southern India and Sri Lanka, the Slender Loris is a small, nocturnal primate. Currently there is no known cure. [67], The dental formula of slow lorises is 2.1.3.32.1.3.3 × 2 = 36, meaning that on each side of the mouth there are two upper (maxillary) and lower (mandibular) incisors, one upper and lower canine tooth, three upper and lower premolars, and three upper and lower molars, giving a total of 36 permanent teeth. To protect itself, the Slow loris has also been observed to rub the venom on its fur. The Bengal slow loris is nocturnal and arboreal, occurring in both evergreen and deciduous forests. Habitat of the Slow Loris These primates live mostly in dense forests with lots of vegetation. [8][63] Their combined head and body lengths vary by species, but range from 18 to 38 cm (7.1 to 15.0 in) between all species. [36] However, in 1939 Reginald Innes Pocock consolidated all slow lorises into a single species, N. coucang,[37] and in his influential 1953 book Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, primatologist William Charles Osman Hill also followed this course. IUCN Red List Status Vulnerable. IUCN Red List Status Vulnerable For example, slow lorises can feed on Gluta bark, which may be fatal to humans. Slow loris envenomation in humans is rare; but can result in near fatal anaphylactic shock. largest of the lorises, the Bengal slow loris Nycticebus bengalensis. Beliefs about slow lorises and their use in traditional practices are deep-rooted and go back at least 300 years, if not earlier based on oral traditions. [92][93] In the absence of direct studies of the genus, primatologist Simon Bearder speculated that slow loris social behavior is similar to that of the potto, another nocturnal primate. Slow lorises are threatened by a combination of habitat loss and over-exploitation, and nowhere is this more apparent than in the wildlife markets of Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar and southern China. The loris gradually have their bodies and their tails hid just beneath the stub and thick fur. It then has the ability to chemically-defend itself from predator, making itself unpalatable, and able to fend off predators with burning. Although most of the recognized lineages of Nycticebus (including N. pygmaeus, N. menagensis and N. javanicus) were shown to be genetically distinct—the analysis suggested that DNA sequences from some individuals of N. coucang and N. bengalensis apparently share a closer evolutionary relationship with each other than with members of their own species. They also believe that slow lorises have medicinal powers because they require more than one hit with a stick to die. Deep-rooted beliefs about the supernatural powers of slow lorises, such as their purported abilities to ward off evil spirits or to cure wounds, have popularized their use in traditional medicine. Figure:Rescued Bengal Slow Loris. [108] Traditional medicine made from loris parts is thought to cure many diseases,[124] and the demand for this medicine from wealthy urban areas has replaced the subsistence hunting traditionally performed in poor rural areas. The species has the largest geographical range of all the slow loris species and is endemic to northeast India, Bangladesh and Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Vietnam, South China and Thailand). Read More. Slow Loris Outreach Week 2017 Of all the loris species, the Bengal slow loris occupies the greatest and northernmost range, with the largest populations living in eastern Thailand. pygmaeus. Their evolutionary history is uncertain since their fossil record is patchy and molecular clock studies have given inconsistent results. There are eight recognized species of slow lorises that include the Sunda slow loris, Javan slow loris, Bengal slow loris, pygmy slow loris, Bangka slow loris, Bornean slow loris, Philippine slow loris, and the Kayan River slow loris. They vary in head and body length by species, but all species range from 18 to 38 cm (7.1 to 15.0 inches). [88] Slow lorises are also smuggled to China, Taiwan, Europe, Russia, the United States, and Saudi Arabia for use as pets. Their habitat is ra… [70][71], Slow lorises have relatively large maxillary canine teeth, their inner (mesial) maxillary incisors are larger than the outer (distal) maxillary incisors, and they have a diastema (gap) between the canine and the first premolar. [63] Similar to the slender lorises, the fur around and directly above the eyes is dark. All slow lorises are threatened by the wildlife trade and habitat loss. This is due to loss of habitat and severe pressures from hunting, there is more than 30% reduction in population over three generations. The Bengal slow loris (nycticebus bengalensis), an endangered species of primate locally known as lajjaboti banor, are on the verge of disappearing due to extensive deforestation, researchers and environmentalists said.As deforestation has destroyed much of their natural habitat and sources of food, lorises are now entering into nearby localities of Chittagong. [124] The following passage from an early textbook about primates is indicative of the superstitions associated with slow lorises: Many strange powers are attributed to this animal by the natives of the countries it inhabits; there is hardly an event in life to man, woman or child, or even domestic animals, that may not be influenced for better or worse by the Slow Loris, alive or dead, or by any separate part of it, and apparently one cannot usually tell at the time, that one is under supernatural power. Equally they are able to remain totally still for hours on end if required. Rovero, F., Mtui, A., Kitegile, A., Jacob, P., Araldi, A., and Tenan, S. (2015). [128], Each of the slow loris species that had been identified prior to 2012 are currently listed as either "Vulnerable" or "Endangered" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on their Red List. The smallest slow Lorises live in Borneo, an island in South East Asia. [129][137], Despite frequent advertisements by pet shops in Japan, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre reported that only a few dozen slow lorises were legally imported in 2006, suggesting frequent smuggling. Photo Taken At Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. Ben­gal slow lorises are noc­tur­nal and ar­bo­real strep­sir­rhines. When threatened, slow lorises may also lick their brachial glands and bite their aggressors, delivering the toxin into the wounds. The Bengal slow loris (N. bengalensis) has the largest distribution of all the slow lorises and can be found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, southern China, Northeast India, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. An arboreal animal, the Bengal slow loris is found in almost all types of … Their habitat is rapidly disappearing and becoming fragmented, making it nearly impossible for slow lorises to disperse between forest fragments; unsustainable demand from the exotic pet trade and from traditional medicine has been the greatest cause for their decline. They inhabit lowland forests, evergreen forests, deciduous forests, swamps, shrublands, hardwood forests, bamboo forests, and more. [30][31][32] Geoffroy also named Nycticebus javanicus in this work. It is so easy to get access to wild-caught lorises, it is highly doubtful that a seller who claims to have captive-bred ones is telling the truth.